Home | Help

Diseases of crustaceans

Viral diseases—Tetrahedral baculovirosis

Signs of diseases

Important: animals with disease may show one or more of the signs below, but disease may still be present in the absence of any signs.

Disease signs at the farm level
Clinical signs of disease in an infected animal
Gross signs of disease in an infected animal

There are few visible signs indicating infection with this disease other than rapid high mortality of hatchery prawns in the early life stages. Therefore, diagnosis is usually based on microscopic and histological examination.

Disease agent

The causative agent is Baculovirus penaei.

Host range

Crustaceans known to be susceptible to tetrahedral baculovirosis:
aloha prawn* (Penaeus marginatus)
blue shrimp* (Penaeus stylirostrus)
giant black tiger prawn* (Penaeus monodon)
northern brown shrimp* (Penaeus aztecus)
northern pink shrimp* (Penaeus duorarum)
northern white shrimp* (Penaeus setiferus)
Pacific white shrimp* (Penaeus vannamei)
Pomada prawn* (Protrachypene precipua)
red-spotted shrimp* (Penaeus brasiliensis)
redtail prawn* (Penaeus pencillatus)
roughback shrimp* (Trachypenaeus similis)
San Paulo shrimp* (Penaeus paulensis)
southern brown shrimp* (Penaeus subtilis)
southern white shrimp* (Penaeus schmitti)

* naturally susceptible

Presence in Asia–Pacific

While tetrahedral baculovirosis is not officially reported under the NACA–FAO–OIE quarterly aquatic animal disease reporting program, it is known to be present in the region.


Differential diagnosis

The differential diagnostic table and the list of similar diseases appearing at the bottom of each disease page refer only to the diseases covered by this field guide. Gross signs observed might well be representative of a wider range of diseases not included here. Therefore, these diagnostic aids should not be read as a guide to a definitive diagnosis, but rather as a tool to help identify the listed diseases that most closely account for the gross signs.

Similar diseases

Baculoviral midgut gland necrosis, spherical baculovirosis

Further images

Sample collection

Because of uncertainty in differentiating diseases using only gross signs, and because some aquatic animal disease agents might pose a risk to humans, you should not try to collect samples unless you have been trained. Instead, you should phone your national hotline number and report your observations. If samples have to be collected, the agency taking the call will advise you on what you need to do. Local or district fisheries/veterinary authorities could advise you on sampling.

Emergency disease hotline

For your national emergency disease hotline number, see Whom to contact if you suspect a disease.

Further reading


The currently accepted procedures for a conclusive diagnosis of tetrahedral baculovirosis are summarised at http://www.oie.int/eng/normes/fmanual/A_00051.htm

These hyperlinks were correct and functioning at the time of publication.

Return to top

Home | Help

| Information | Introduction | Anatomy | Differential Diagnostic Table | Diseases of Finfish | Diseases of Molluscs | Diseases of Crustaceans | Common Names | Contacts | Links | Further Reading |