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Diseases of crustaceans

Viral diseases—Baculoviral midgut gland necrosis

Signs of disease

Important: animals with disease may show one or more of the signs below, but disease may still be present in the absence of any signs.

Disease signs at the tank and pond level
Clinical signs of disease in an infected animal

Disease agent

Baculoviral midgut gland necrosis virus is currently an unassigned virus of the family Baculoviridae. It was known as Penaeus japonicus nonoccluded baculovirus (PjNOB) before it was removed from the classification structure by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses in 1995.

Host range

Crustaceans known to be susceptible to baculoviral midgut gland necrosis:
eastern king prawn* (Penaeus plebejus)
Kuruma prawn* (Penaeus japonicus)
Chinese white shrimp (Penaeus chinensis)
giant black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon)
grooved tiger prawn (Penaeus semisulcatus)

* naturally susceptible (other species have been shown to be experimentally susceptible)

Presence in Asia–Pacific

While baculoviral midgut gland necrosis is not officially reported under the NACA–FAO–OIE quarterly aquatic animal disease reporting program, it is known to be present in the Asia–Pacific region.


Differential diagnosis

The differential diagnostic table and the list of similar diseases appearing at the bottom of each disease page refer only to the diseases covered by this field guide. Gross signs observed might well be representative of a wider range of diseases not included here. Therefore, these diagnostic aids should not be read as a guide to a definitive diagnosis, but rather as a tool to help identify the listed diseases that most closely account for the gross signs.

Similar diseases

White spot disease, tetrahedral baculovirosis

Further images

Sample collection

Because of uncertainty in differentiating diseases using only gross signs, and because some aquatic animal disease agents might pose a risk to humans, you should not try to collect samples unless you have been trained. Instead, you should phone your national hotline number and report your observations. If samples have to be collected, the agency taking the call will advise you on what you need to do. Local or district fisheries/veterinary authorities could advise you on sampling.

Emergency disease hotline

For your national emergency disease hotline number, see Whom to contact if you suspect a disease.

Further reading


The currently accepted procedures for a conclusive diagnosis of baculoviral midgut gland necrosis are summarised at


These hyperlinks were correct and functioning at the time of publication.

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