Shrimp Farming eNews
- October 2006 -
Shrimp farming eNews
provides news on shrimp farming, trade, environment, and
technology and industry development, obtained from Network of Aquaculture
Centres in Asian-Pacific, as well as web-based search engines. This media
monitoring service tracks some of the major news items on shrimp aquaculture,
market price, events and publications.
Your contributions on research and development, topical stories, market developments, meetings, conferences and other events, and other newsworthy items are always welcome. Please send them to
Shrimp Farming & the Environment, Media Monitoring Section
P.O. Box 1040, Kasetsart Post Office, Bangkok 10903, Thailand
Tel: 66-2-561 1728 (Ext 124); Fax: 66-2-561 1727
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1. International principles for responsible shrimp farming welcomed by countries
2. NGO meeting on tropical shrimp certification in Bangkok
3. 8th Asian Fisheries Forum
4. Aquatic animal epidemiology training course in Iran
5. Shrimp health training course
6. Living with Floods in Mekong Delta
7. Trends of French and Spanish shrimp import
8. Iranian Shrimp production to be doubled this year
9. Market Information
10. Upcoming Events
11. Recent Publications
News from NACA and its partners
1. International principles for responsible shrimp farming welcomed by countries– International Principles for Responsible Shrimp Farming, developed by the Shrimp Farming and the Environment Consortium Program (FAO, NACA, UNEP/GPA, the World Bank and WWF) were presented at the 3rd session of the FAO Committee on Fisheries: Sub- Committee on Aquaculture in New Delhi, India, 4-8 September 2006. A group of 50+ countries attending the meeting welcomed these non-binding international principles for responsible shrimp farming which offer guidance on how to reduce the sector’s environmental impacts while boosting its contribution to poverty alleviation. While not slated for formal adoption by national delegations participating the meeting, there was general consensus that the principles should be relied upon as a global point of reference for aquaculture policy and development. Since the meeting, NACA has held consultations with FAO and other Consortium partners towards further implementation of the Sub- Committee on Aquaculture recommendations
(Full article, click here)
2. NGO meeting on tropical shrimp certification – The meeting was held in Bangkok during 25-27 September, organised by IUCN NL, Oxfam NOVIB, Mangrove Action Project (MAP), Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF) and other community based NGO’s from tropical shrimp producing countries. The meeting discussed the risks, opportunities and implications of shrimp certification. At the second day of the meeting, FAO/RAP presented the International Shrimp Principles and NACA presented the results of, and implications for translating Principles into practice, based on the work of the MPEDA/NACA program in India.
3. 8th Asian Fisheries Forum – The Asian Fisheries Society is organizing the “8th Asian Fisheries Forum” in Kochi, India 20-23 November 2007. The Forum is expected to attract over 1000 scientists, development workers, fisheries professionals, traders, fisheries organizations, governmental agencies, planners and activists. NACA will organize a special session on shrimp farming in the forum.
More details can be found in Forum Brochure (PDF) and forum’s website click here. For more information on the shrimp session, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
4. Aquatic animal epidemiology training course in Iran - A 4-days training course in Aquatic Animal Epidemiology was held following the request from Iranian Fisheries Research organisation (IFRO) Tehran. The training course was delivered by Dr Flavio Corsin (NACA) and organised by the local IFRO coordinator Dr Mohammad Afsharnasab. The course was attended by a total of 14 participants from 7 IFRO offices located across Iran and 2 Iran Veterinary Organization (IVO) offices in Tehran and Bushehr.
5. Shrimp health training course. The 6th annual Shrimp Health Management Training Course was conducted 24-28 July in Bangkok, with 30 participants attending from India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, the Philippines and Thailand. A five-day practical course aimed to provide all aspects of health management with a strong emphasis on prevention of disease through good farm management practices and husbandry, from pond preparation and selection of seed through to harvest. This year’s course was organized under a collaborative arrangement between ALLTECH and NACA.
6. Living with Floods in Mekong Delta - The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Vietnam has drafted a guideline entitled "Living with floods" which aim to stabilise and develop socio-economic opportunities through aquaculture for a frequent flooding area of Mekong delta. Most provinces have concentrated efforts on flood prevention, however this guidelines focus more to harness the opportunities that floods bring with them such as fish and other natural resource.
Vietnam News in Vietnam Net Bridge, 29 Sep 2006 (Full article,
7. Trends of French and Spanish shrimp import - First half import figures for 2006 increased 12% for Spanish imports while French imports are slightly decreased (3%) compared to the first half of 2005. Both countries share an upward trend in average import unit values, although it is not clear increase is due to a change in the composition of imports (such as larger sizes) or to straight price increases. Following an easing of EU restrictions, China increased its share of Spanish imports dramatically over past few years and currently the largest frozen shrimp supplier to the country.
Source: Eurofish, Sep 2006 (full report, click here)
8. Iranian Shrimp production to be doubled this year – A total of 7,000 tons of shrimp is expected to be produced this year in the estimated 2,400 hectares of farming area across the country. The figure is doubling compare to last year when the Iranian shrimp industry was badly hit by a outbreak of White Spot Syndrome.
Source: Mehrnews.com, 29 Sep 2006 (full article, click here)
-Source: Thai Union Feed Mill
16-20 October 2006, Beijing, China PR
The Intergovernmental Review Meetings are a forum where Governments and other stakeholders meet to review the status of the implementation of the GPA and decide on action to be taken to strengthen the implementation of the GPA. Building on the success of IGR-1 held in Montreal, Canada in 2001, representatives from governments, inter-governmental organisations, NGOs and other groups are expected to participate in IGR-2 in a highly inter-active and results orientated meeting.
31 October – 3 November, 2006, Kish Island, Iran
The main aim of this Exhibition is creating a dynamic and active environment for active participation of Iranian and foreigner fisheries, aquaculture and seafood companies for introducing their products and services, Kish Island, Kish Island - Islamic Republic of Iran, M. Harandi, email@example.com, +98-21-66482281-2, +98-21-66970742, Address: Unit 2, No. 208, Shohadaye Jandarmery St., 12th Farvardin St., Enghelab Ave., Tehran-Iran
Click here for the website
23-26 November, 2006, Agadir Morocco
Contact: Ms Mghoghi- Chef de project
IEC - International Exhibitions & Conferences
6-8 December 2006, Connecticut, USA
NACE includes all aspects of aquaculture elevant to the Northeast US: freshwater and marine, shellfish, finfish and aquatic plants. There will be sessions on both food and non-food product aquaculture with emphasis on usable information and a trade show for the industry. Program Committee chair: Dana Morse (207) 563-3146 x205
Click here for the website
12-16 December 2006, PR China
This Congress promises to drive the wheels of sustainable development in continuous motion, thereby bringing East Asia closer and closer to ultimately achieving a healthy and bountiful future for its seas and its people. Designed to address pressing marine environmental issues in practical formats and against a multidisciplinary setting, the various Congress components provide participants the opportunity to take active roles in sustainable development. NACA is also organizing a session on environmentally responsible aquaculture together with Asian Fisheries Society (AFS) under the session “Communities in Sustainable Development”.
Click here for the website
Chennai, India January 11-13, 2007
· Sustainable Aquaculture 2007
26 February-2March 2007 San Antonio, Texas USA
Click here for the website
· 8th Asian Fisheries Forum (8AFF)
November 2007, Cochin, India
The 8AFF will be hosted by AFS-IB in the City of Cochin, India in November 2007. Dr. Ayyappan, Chairperson of AFS-IB and the nominated convener of 8AFF, Dr. Mohan Joseph Modayil are calling for support from all AFS members to come to the forum.
Forum Brochure in
PDF and link for forum website
from NACA and its Partner Institutes (Download free from
NACA publication Main Page)
· The International Principles for Responsible Shrimp Farming - The outcome from the Consortium Program (the World Bank, NACA, WWF, FAO and UNEP) through stakeholder workshops and consultations has been synthesized into a draft set of the International Principles for Responsible Shrimp Farming. These principles address the technical, environmental, social and economic issues associated with shrimp farming and provide a basis for development and implementation of better farming practices or "better management practices" (BMP) and government policies to guide overall sustainability of shrimp farming at national, regional and global levels.
(To download, click here)
· Principles to Practice– Two in-country shrimp projects, in India and Vietnam, have provided good examples of translating the international principles into specific better management practices (BMPs) adapted to local farming conditions and ensuring their implementation by relevant stakeholders. They give evidence of the advantages of small farmers being organized (as aquaclubs, associations or societies), sharing resources, helping each other and adopting BMPs. The results range from improved yields, less impact on the environment, wholesome products, and better relations among players in the market chain. In short, the implementation of the BMPs has provided benefits to the farmers, environment and society.
(To download, click here)
- Shrimp Health Management brochures provide Better Management Practices (BMPs)
in a reader friendly format. These brochures are prepared as extension materials
through the village based demonstration programme by MPEDA (the Marine Products
Export Development Authority of India) and NACA. The programme continues
building success and now involves a total of 29 villages and 29 Aquaclubs in
five Indian states (Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Orissa, Gujarat, and Karnataka)
1. BMP summary brochure (PDF)
2. Pond preparation (PDF)
3. Selection of good quality seed (PDF)
4. Water quality management (PDF)
5. Good feed management (PDF)
6. Pond bottom management (PDF)
7. Shrimp health management (PDF)
8. Harvesting and post harvest handling (PDF)
9. Mangrove plantation and conservation (PDF)
- More information about the programme can be found at MPEDA/NACA Website.
(2) Aquaculture, Volume 258, Issues 1-4, Page 1 – 698 (31 August 2006) - In this issue several articles which may be of interest and abstracts are provided:
To access to other abstracts visit the website: http://www.sciencedirect.com/
Review: Detection of major penaeid shrimp viruses in Asia, a historical perspective with emphasis on Thailand
T.W. Flegela, Page: 1-33
Asia leads the world in cultivated shrimp production with export earnings in the order of billions of US dollars per year. Despite this success, annual production decreased in the latter nineties because of widespread epidemics (epizootics) caused by new viral pathogens. Although these viruses were no cause for alarm to human health authorities, they were economically crippling for Asian shrimp farmers. In Thailand, shrimp production trends have mirrored those in the rest of Asia, except that recovery from the viral epidemics has been somewhat better than it has been for most of its close neighbors. Initially, Penaeus monodon was the main cultivated species but this has changed markedly since 2002 when Penaeus vannamei (also called Litopenaeus vannamei) started to be cultivated in many Asian countries. Since 2004, it has been the dominant cultivated species in the world. Research in Thailand has focused on the characterization of shrimp viruses and on the development of rapid diagnostic probes for them. The major viruses of concern (in estimated order of past economic impact for Thailand) are white-spot syndrome virus (WSSV), yellow-head virus (YHV), hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) and monodon baculovirus (MBV). However, with the introduction of P. vannamei, Taura syndrome virus (TSV) and infectious hypodermal and hematopoeitic virus (IHHNV) have now become important. Presently, the most rapid and sensitive tests employ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology and take approximately 3 h to complete. However, lateral flow chromatographic tests based on nanogold-labeled monoclonal antibodies have recently been introduced. Although they tend to be less sensitive than PCR-based methods, they are highly specific, very inexpensive and so user-friendly that they can be used pond-side by farmers themselves to verify disease outbreaks. This review covers the main Asian shrimp viruses for which PCR tests and some antibody tests are currently available and it emphasizes work that has been done in Thailand.
High prevalence of dual and triple viral infections in black tiger shrimp ponds in India
K.R. Umesha, Bob Kennedy M. Dass, B. Manja Naik, M.N. Venugopal, Indrani Karunasagar and Iddya Karunasagar, Pages 91-96
During a period of two crops, shrimp (Penaeus monodon) samples from 18 ponds (10 ponds in the first crop and 8 ponds in the second) were analyzed by PCR for the presence of HPV, WSSV and MBV. During the first crop, 2 ponds were positive for HPV by one step PCR and 5 additional ponds were positive by nested PCR. In the second crop, 3 ponds were positive by nested PCR only. In the first crop, all the ponds were positive for WSSV by PCR (4 by nested and 6 by single step PCR). In the second crop, all the ponds were positive for WSSV only by nested PCR. MBV was detected in all the 10 ponds (9 by nested and 1 by single step PCR) in the first crop. However, in the second crop, 7/8 ponds were positive for MBV only by nested PCR. In the present survey of ponds during 2 crops, 7 ponds showed simultaneous presence of infection by MBV and WSSV and 10 ponds (7 in first crop and 3 in second crop) showed the presence of three viruses.
Sparing effect of pond water on vitamins in shrimp diets
Shaun M. Moss, Ian P. Forster and Albert G.J. Tacon, Pages 388-395
A 10-wk experiment was conducted to determine whether shrimp pond water has a sparing effect on vitamins, trace minerals, and protein levels in diets fed to juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Twenty-four 52-L aquaria were stocked with 0.7-g shrimp at a density of 24 shrimp/aquaria (100 shrimp/m2 equivalent). Shrimp were exposed to flow-through seawater from one of two sources: clear well water from a seawater aquifer or organically rich water from a pond used for intensive shrimp culture. In addition, four diets were evaluated in each of the two water sources (three replicates/treatment), including: 1) a 35%-protein diet with vitamin and trace mineral premixes, 2) the same 35%-protein diet minus the vitamin premix, 3) the 35%-protein diet minus the trace mineral premix, and 4) a 25%-protein diet with vitamin and trace mineral premixes. Shrimp grown in well water without vitamins in their diet had a significantly lower (P < 0.05) final weight, growth rate, and survival, and a significantly higher FCR, than shrimp grown in well water with vitamins. However, there was no significant difference in final weight, growth rate, survival, or FCR between pond-water reared shrimp with and without vitamins, indicating that removal of vitamins from the diet of pond water-reared shrimp had no effect on shrimp performance. In contrast to vitamins, there was no sparing effect of pond water on trace minerals or protein levels. As expected, growth rates of shrimp reared in pond water were greater than those in well water for each of the four diets. The largest difference in growth rate was seen with the 35%-protein diet minus vitamins. Shrimp fed this diet grew 306% faster in pond water than in well water. It appears that the growth enhancing effect of pond water is more pronounced when shrimp are fed diets of inferior quality. Results from this study indicate that pond water has a sparing effect on vitamins in shrimp diets, and microbes likely contributed significantly to this effect. By exploiting endogenously produced microbes and associated detritus, shrimp farmers and feed manufacturers can reduce substantially vitamin levels in shrimp feeds, resulting in reduced feed costs without compromising shrimp growth, survival, or FCR.
Effect of natural production in a zero exchange suspended microbial floc based super-intensive culture system for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei
Wilson Wasielesky, Jr.,, Heidi Atwood, Al Stokes and Craig L. Browdy, Pages 396-403
Zero water exchange, super-intensive culture of shrimp in enclosed raceway type systems can be considered environmentally friendly in that containment of water within the system prevents potential spread of disease between the wild populations and cultured animals and avoids nutrient rich waste from polluting coastal waters. However, as a relatively new strategy for shrimp production, there is much still to be learned about the potential biological and economic benefits of producing shrimp in suspended microbial floc based systems. Understanding shrimp feeding behavior and quantification of shrimp feed consumption provides valuable information for culturists to improve feed management, one of the keys to economic viability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional contribution of varying levels of microalgae/bacterial floc on survival, growth, food consumption, and FCR of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles fed diets with different protein levels in replicated experimental microcosm tanks. The 20 day experiment evaluated 9 treatments, three water types fed three different protein diets. Water was recirculated within a sump and consisted of either clear, UV filtered water, water containing microbial floc from an adjacent zero exchange super-intensive raceway production unit, or a 50:50 mix of clear water and raceway water. Diet treatments were either no food, 25% or 35% protein content. Treatments were randomly assigned to 50 L, mesh covered plastic bins receiving each water type. Each treatment consisted of five replicates, each containing 44 shrimp, with a mean stocking weight of 1.82 ± 0.71 g for a final density of 300 per m2. Shrimp in each treatment (except the no feed treatment) were fed 3 times daily via a specially designed feed tray. Food consumption and FCR were calculated based on weight gain, survival, total consumed feed, feed loss through leaching, and initial feed moisture content. Results were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and differences between the means analyzed by Tukey's test (α = 0.05). Survival in the fed treatments was greater than 98% in all treatments (P > 0.05). Survival in the non-fed treatments was significantly higher in the raceway water treatments than in the clear water treatment (P < 0.05). Final weight, weight gain, final biomass, food consumption and FCR were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in all treatments fed with 35% protein feed. This result suggests a positive relationship between the growth parameters and the protein content of the feeds in this system, and confirms the benefit of natural productivity for production of L. vannamei.
(3) Aquaculture, Volume 259, Issues 1-4, Page 1-454 (8 September 2006) In this issue several articles which may be of interest and abstracts are provided:
To access to other abstracts visit the website: http://www.sciencedirect.com/
Food sources of the sergestid crustacean, Acetes sibogae, in shrimp ponds
Frank E. Coman, Rod M. Connolly, Stuart E. Bunn and Nigel P. Preston, Pages 222-233
A combination of stable isotope measurements and gut contents analysis was used to determine the major food sources of the sergestid crustacean Acetes sibogae, in commercial shrimp ponds at two farms in southeast Queensland, Australia. Slight differences were observed between farms but overall the results were consistent. Although gut contents analysis gave a good indication of the range and temporal occurrence of food items consumed by Acetes, it was difficult to ascertain the contribution each item made to the diet. This was mainly due to the large proportion of unidentifiable material in the guts. All specimens examined contained unidentifiable material and about half the Acetes from both farms contained nothing identifiable. This unidentifiable material may be the result of processing by the Acetes gastric mill or the consumption of detritus, sediment or processed material from shrimp pellets. Only resilient items such as crustacean remains, diatoms and tinntinnids were commonly identified from the guts, and although present over the majority of the sampling period, FOCs were never greater than 25%.
Stable isotope signals were measured for Acetes and likely food sources including pelleted shrimp feed, zooplankton and macroalgae. The pattern of changes in isotopic signals of Acetes across the season showed that zooplankton was a primary food source. Changes in the signals of zooplankton were reflected by changes in Acetes, but the changes in Acetes signal were less pronounced. At both farms, Acetes were more enriched in 13C and 15N (− 15‰ to − 20‰ and 12‰ to 13.8‰) than the zooplankton (− 18.9‰ to − 23.7‰ and 5‰ to 13.1‰), during the whole season. The absolute difference between the 13C values of Acetes and zooplankton were more consistent than for δ15N, but both were greater than might be expected based on fractionation over a single trophic level. Furthermore, laboratory feeding trials showed that fractionation could not explain the greater than expected enrichment of the Acetes signal compared to that measured for zooplankton in the ponds. This, together with evidence from gut content analysis, showed that a food source other than zooplankton must also be important to Acetes. Macroalgae are the most likely additional source, although some minor contribution of pellets or microalgae cannot be ruled out entirely. There was no evidence from either gut contents or stable isotope signatures of dramatic dietary changes for Acetes either through a season or as they grew. It would appear unlikely that Acetes would have a great effect on shrimp production in ponds unless they were extremely abundant early in the season when the postlarvae are also feeding on zooplankton.
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