Marine Finfish Aquaculture e-News No. 16 (8/10/2004)


Dear Asia-Pacific Marine Finfish Aquaculture Network list,   

The purpose of the e-News is to facilitate prompt information dissemination on marine fish research and developments, to complement the regular quarterly eMagazine (upgraded from the previous eNewsletter). The e-News will be circulated regularly based on the latest developments and news collected through the network. We welcome your contributions with research and development news items, market developments, upcoming events and others - please send to 

Mr Sih Yang SIM; Dr Michael Phillips; and Dr Mike Rimmer
Asia-Pacific Marine Finfish Aquaculture Network
c/o: NACAP.O. Box 1040, Kasetsart Post Office, Bangkok 10903, Thailand
Tel: 66-2-561 1728 (Ext 120); Fax: 66-2-561 1727


1. Protection plea for reef fish – the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) is having its annual meeting in Bangkok from October 2-14, 2004. The WWF, the IUCN-World Conservation Union, UK government and EU members are suggesting that the humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus) be included in Appendix II, which would allow stricter fishing regulations. The full article is available from BBC News website at

2. Marine Aquaculture Conference 2004: Breeding & Hatchery Opportunities, 12-13th October 2004, Singapore. Singapore is pleased to host the inaugural Marine Aquaculture Conference 2004, a platform for uncovering the latest developments and business issues facing the aquaculture industry, focusing on most up-to-date breakthrough in Science & Technology in breeding and hatchery management. This event serves as an excellent node for participants to gain knowledge from renowned speakers from Europe, US and the region and more importantly, to network, identify investments opportunities, research collaboration and technology commercialization. Entrepreneurs, aquaculture practitioners, scientists, equipment suppliers, educators, policy makers and potential investors should attend. 

For further information or contact Mr Adrian Lim at or the event manager Mr Jason Ng at

3. Fish stocks – a news article on the “” website refers to the state of declining fish stocks, emphasizes the role of aquaculture in meeting the world’s fish needs, but notes that concerns of the effects of fish farming on the marine environment also should be considered. For full article visit website

4. Fish meal crisis – what crisis? – an interesting article on fishmeal usage in aquaculture drawing experience from the Scottish salmon industry. Industrial fish farming is the fastest growing sector of the global food economy and so is its share of fishmeal usage for fish/shrimp feed. For full article visit website

5. A photographic guide to diseases of yellowtail (Seriola) fish – This is 65-page guidebook contains 30 pages of high resolution, detailed pathology photographs of 29 disease-related topics most typically observed in yellowtail, kingfish, and amberjack (Seriola) fish types. Each topic includes one page of easy-to-read information, descriptions and diagnostic collection recommendations. The topics range from farm-hygiene to bacterial, viral, parasitic and complex disease syndromes. The book is designed as a basic, hands-on, "what am I looking at now" diagnostic field guide for farm staff, lab technicians and students. The author of the book is Dr. Mark Sheppard. For more detail, or email

6. Malachite green survey published – Malachite green has proved effective for used in fish farming health management, however, it is now banned in the EU for use on food fish due to its potential effect on human health. A recent survey on farmed salmon in the UK found 4.9 parts per billion of malachite green, which is above the European Commission’s limit of 2 parts per billion. For full news article visit website For the actual report of the survey visit websites or Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) website

7. Weekly Marine Fish Wholesales Prices in China –September, 2004

· Hong Kong – September 28- October 4· Southern China – as the website of the Huangsha Live Seafood Wholesales Market was down, price information for this period is not availableThe following web link provides marine fish wholesale prices in Southern China and Hong Kong. For details average prices visit

8. Mariculture in the Asia-Pacific region: Recent Developments and New Challenges, NACA will organize a special session on mariculture for the 7th Asian Fisheries Forum, (Penang, Malaysia, Nov 29-Dec 3, 2004) in partnership with FAO, WFC, ACIAR, TDH and others. The session will be for one day, and combine invited presentations together with tropical mariculture papers submitted to the conference organizers. Final deadline for submission of abstracts and registration for the conference is 27th October.

For further information contact: Dr Michael Phillips or Mr. Sih Yang Sim

Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific
Suraswadi Building, Department of Fisheries
Kasetsart University Campus
Ladyao, Jatujak
Bangkok 10900
Fax: 66-2-561-1727

More information on the 7th Asian Fisheries Forum and registration details can be found at

9. Upcoming Events in 2004  

  • APEC Integrated Oceans Management Forums, October 18 - 20, 2004, Easter Island, Chile. For further information or contact Shelly Schnurr at
  • Aquaculture Europe 2004, October 20-23, 2004 Barcelona, Spain. Preceding the conference, on October 20, a workshop on "Challenges for Mediterranean Aquaculture Products" will take place. Information will also be made available on Further information contact
  • International Conference on Aquaculture Production and marketing of Shrimp and Finfish, and Bangladesh Seafood Expo 2004, 28-29 November 2004, Pan Pacific Sonargaon Hotel, Dhaka, Bangladesh. For more information contact INFOFISH at or
  • 7th Asian Fisheries Forum 2004, November 29 – December 3, 2004. Penang, Malaysia. For more details, contact the 7th AFF Secretariat at or visit website
  • Sixth International Aquarium Congress, Monterey Bay Aquarium, Monterey, California, USA, December 5-10, 2004. For further information contact Tel: + (831) 644-7580, Fax: + (831) 648-4925, Email:,

10. Recent publications

i). Larviculture Newsletter Issue 204 (September 15, 2004) - In this issue several articles which may be of interest:Effects of protein and lipid sources on the growth and survival of red sea bream Pagrus major and Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus receiving micro-bound diets during larval and early juvenile stage Daily change of genetic variability in hatchery offspring of red sea bream during spawning season Effect of rotifers enriched with taurine on growth and survival activity of red sea bream Pagrus major larvae Dietary value of marine rotifer Brachionus plicatilis in different population growth stages for larval red sea bream Pagrus major

The electronic version of the newsletter is available from this website, however, you will need to be a member to access to the articles. To subscribe to the newsletter it will cost 12.5 Euro/year, for further information on subscription contact Gilbert Van Stappen at

ii). Aquaculture, Volume 240, Issue 1-4, Pages 1-636 (27 October, 2004) - In this issue there are several articles which may be of interest:

  • Analysis of immune-relevant genes expressed in red sea bream (Chrysophrys major) spleen
  • Outdoor phytoplankton continuous culture in a marine fish-phytoplankton-bivalve integrated system: combined effects of dilution rate and ambient conditions on growth rate, biomass and nutrient cycling
  • Enhancement of rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) growth by using terrestrial lactic acid bacteria

Full abstracts can be accessed from the website:

iii). Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA) – NACA is now able to access to the Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA) database of scientific publications. The following are recent publications on marine finfish aquaculture and related topics. 

· Polka dot grouper Cromileptes altivelis fingerlings require high protein and moderate lipid diets for optimal growth and nutrient retention 
Author: Williams, K*; Irvin, S; Barclay, M Source: Aquaculture Nutrition. Vol. 10, no. 2, pp 125-134. April 2004. 

An 8-week comparative slaughter experiment was carried out to determine the effect of dietary protein and lipid on growth, apparent digestibility (AD) and nutrient retention of polka dot grouper Cromileptes altivelis. Fingerlings were fed diets that varied in crude protein (CP) at 55 g kg super (-1) increments between 410 and 630 g kg super (-1) dry matter (DM) and at either a moderate (150 g kg super (-1) DM) or high (240 g kg super (-1) DM) lipid concentration. Each diet was fed to satiety twice daily to four replicate tanks (110 L) of fish. One replicate block of tanks comprised 150 fish of mean (plus or minus SD) initial weight of 9.6 plus or minus 0.29 g, which were distributed equally to 10 tanks. The other three replicate blocks of tanks comprised 300 fish of 12.6 plus or minus 0.45 g, which were distributed equally to 30 tanks. Tanks were provided with filtered and heated (29 plus or minus 0.5 degree C) seawater in a flow-through system within a laboratory where photoperiod was maintained at 12:12 h light-dark cycle. Voluntary food intake was not significantly affected by either the CP or lipid concentration of the diet (mean plus or minus SD of 1.93 plus or minus 0.146 g week super (-1)) but there was a trend for intake to be higher on the moderate compared with the high lipid diets (mean plus or minus SEM of 1.97 versus 1.89 plus or minus 0.033 g week super (-1), respectively). Daily growth coefficient (DGC) and food conversion ratio (FCR) improved linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary CP (from 0.94 to 1.35% day super (-1) for DGC and 1.58 to 1.00 g DM g super (-1) wet gain for FCR) and these responses were almost coincident for each of the lipid series. The AD of CP increased linearly with increasing dietary CP (from 46.8 to 74.1%) and was independent of dietary lipid. Apparent digestibility of energy increased curvilinearly with increasing dietary CP, with the quadratic component being more prominent for the high-lipid series. Increasing the amount of lipid in the diet markedly increased the lipid content of the fish from an initial composition (mean plus or minus SD) of 173 plus or minus 7.3 g kg super (-1) to a final composition (mean plus or minus SEM) of either 217 or 250 plus or minus 5.9 g kg super (-1) for moderate and high-lipid series, respectively. Total body lipid content tended to increase linearly with increasing dietary CP for the high-lipid series but with an opposite effect for the moderate-lipid series. The retention of digestible nitrogen decreased linearly with increasing dietary CP but at a steeper rate for the moderate, compared with the high, lipid series (from 62.7 to 35.7%, slope -0.115 for moderate-lipid and 54.6 to 41.9%, slope -0.050 for high-lipid). A quadratic function of dietary CP concentration best explained the retention of digestible energy with the curvilinearity being more marked for the high, compared with the moderate, lipid diet series. While there was some indication that ingested lipid spared dietary protein, the results showed a far greater propensity of polka dot grouper fingerlings to use protein as the prime dietary energy source. Diets for juvenile polka dot grouper should contain not less than 440 g digestible protein kg super (-1) DM and at least 150 g lipid kg super (-1) DM. (Up) 

· The financial feasibility of small-scale grouper aquaculture in the Philippines Authors: Pomeroy, RS*; Agbayani, R; Duray, M; Tooledo, J; Quinito, G 
Source: Aquaculture Economics & Management. Vol. 8, no. 1-2, pp. 61-83. 2004. 

This paper presents the results of an economic analysis of the aquaculture of two species of grouper: E. coioides (orange-spotted grouper, green grouper, red-spotted grouper) and E. malabaricus (malabar grouper, black-spotted grouper) for small producers in the Philippines. The findings of the analysis indicate that, based on the assumptions, grouper culture is financially feasible. However, the capital requirements for the broodstock, hatchery/nursery, and integrated system may be beyond the financial means of many small producers. These stages of grouper culture may need to be developed as a larger project by private investors or government. The capital investment requirement for grow-out (not including purchase of transport boxes) is within the financial means of small producers. Loans or other incentives will need to be made available for the small producer, but the cash flow indicates that these loans can be repaid in the first year of production. (Up) 

· Analysis of trophic ontogeny in Epinephelus marginatus (Serranidae) 
Authors: Linde, M*; Grau, AM; Riera, F; Massuti-Pascual, E Source: Cybium. Vol. 28, no. 1, 27. 35 p. 2004 *Contact:  

Ontogenetic diet shifts of the dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834), in the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean) were studied using the stomach contents of 203 specimens ranging between 134 to 1056 mm total length. A total of 64.5% of the examined stomachs contained food. Diet composition, characteristics of ingested preys (average number and average weight), feeding strategy and niche overlap in relation to fish size were evaluated. There were statistical differences (Redundancy Analysis) for the proportions of the main food categories related to size. A high proportion of crustaceans was characteristic of the diet of smaller fishes, while the proportion of cephalopods increased for the larger sizes. Nevertheless, this pattern only represented a low percentage (5.5%) of the variation in diet composition. For growth, the dusky grouper increased the ingestion of larger preys rather than catch a greater number of preys. In proportion to a larger mouth size there was an increased ability to catch voluminous cephalopods and, as a result, the grouper developed from a generalist to a more specialised type of feeding. Shifts in diet composition could be related to behavioural changes. When size is a good predictor of diet composition, the function derived from Redundancy Analysis could be used to estimate the representative diet of a stock in relation to its size structure. (Up)

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